Your travel guide for Sri Lanka

Pigeon Island is located off the coast of North Eastern Sri Lanka, near Trincomalee. It is a travel destination that promises a mix of marine life, coral reefs, and sandy beaches. With its unique ecosystems, the island offers travelers an opportunity to explore nature while contributing to its preservation. This guide provides essential information about the island, including its history, activities, and tips for a memorable visit.

About Pigeon Island

Pigeon Island is one of the 3 marine national parks in Sri Lanka. It sits around 1km from the coast of Nilaveli Beach, making it easily accessible by boat. The island is named after the rock pigeon colonies that inhabit its rocky terrains. Covering an area of about 471 hectares, the park consists of two islands: Large Pigeon Island and Small Pigeon Island.

The area is known for its marine biodiversity, including coral reefs that house various species of fish and sea turtles. The surrounding waters are also a feeding ground for juvenile blacktip reef sharks, making it an interesting location for marine biology enthusiasts.


Pigeon Island gained national park status in 2003, although it has been a sanctuary since the late 1960s. The island has a history of being a popular location for reef fishing and ornamental fish collection, activities that have had an impact on the natural ecosystem. Conservation efforts have been increased in recent years to protect the unique biodiversity found here.

What to Expect

Upon arrival at the island, you'll find clear waters and sandy beaches. The island is relatively small, so it's easy to explore on foot. While walking, you might come across some of the island's inhabitants, like pigeons and other coastal birds.

Snorkeling is a common activity, so expect to see people exploring the marine life in the surrounding shallow waters. The island is generally busy during the weekends and less crowded on weekdays. Basic amenities like snack stalls and equipment rental shops are available near the docking area.

Things to Do


Snorkeling is the most popular activity on the island. The coral reefs are close to the shore, making it easy for beginners to explore the waters. The shallow waters offer great visibility, often extending up to 20 meters, allowing snorkelers to see the vibrant coral and fish in fine detail. Equipment such as masks, snorkels, and fins can be easily rented from shops near the docking area, so you don't need to worry about bringing your own gear.

Scuba Diving

For more experienced divers, scuba diving opportunities are available. The deeper waters offer a chance to see different species of marine life, including blacktip reef sharks and sea turtles. Dive operators often offer a range of dive experiences, from shallower dives suitable for novices to deeper ones aimed at experienced divers. These dives often include visits to underwater caves and tunnels, adding an element of adventure to the experience.

Bird Watching

For bird enthusiasts, the island offers opportunities to observe coastal birds in their natural habitat, including the rock pigeons. These birds are usually found in rocky crevices and add to the natural charm of the island. Morning and late afternoon hours are ideal for bird watching, as the birds are most active during these times. Make sure to bring a field guide to identify different species accurately.


The island's scenic landscapes and unique marine life make it a haven for photographers. Bring your waterproof cameras to capture the underwater beauty. The play of light and shadow underwater creates a mesmerizing effect that makes for compelling photography. Above water, the natural light is perfect for capturing the various textures and shades of the island's flora and the sky during sunrise and sunset.

Conservation and Responsible Tourism

Pigeon Island National Park is an area of significant ecological importance. Visitors are urged to adhere to guidelines aimed at minimizing environmental impact:

  • Do Not Litter: The island has designated waste disposal areas. Use them to dispose of your trash properly and help keep the natural setting clean.
  • Do Not Harvest The Coral: Harvesting coral or any marine life is illegal and harmful to the ecosystem. Always observe and enjoy the underwater world without taking any pieces of it with you.
  • Limited Snorkeling Areas: Snorkeling is restricted to certain zones to minimize impact on the coral reefs. Stick to these areas to help protect the underwater ecosystem while still enjoying your snorkeling experience.
  • Guided Tours: Choose tours led by certified guides who follow eco-friendly practices. These guides are trained to minimize human impact on the island's delicate ecosystems while providing you with insightful information.
  • Follow Designated Trails: When exploring the island, stay on marked paths to minimize soil erosion and disturbance to local flora and fauna. This ensures you're enjoying the island's terrestrial beauty responsibly.
  • Report Illegal Activities: If you see someone littering, fishing, or engaging in other activities that go against the park's regulations, report it to the authorities. This helps in ongoing conservation efforts.

Tips and Advice

  • Pre-book Your Boat Ride: Boat rides to the island can fill up quickly, especially during peak season. Pre-booking ensures you have a spot and can help you avoid waiting times.
  • Wear Reef-Safe Sunscreen: Regular sunscreen can harm marine life. Go for reef-safe sunscreen to protect your skin and the delicate coral ecosystem at the same time.
  • Check the Weather Forecast: The weather can greatly influence sea conditions. Checking the forecast ahead of your visit helps you plan activities like snorkeling and diving more effectively.
  • Beginners Should Opt for Guided Snorkeling: For those new to snorkeling, guided trips offer instruction and safety. Guides can also point out interesting marine life and coral formations you might otherwise miss.
  • Adhere to Park Guidelines: The national park has specific rules to protect its fragile ecosystem. Familiarize yourself with these guidelines and follow them to ensure a responsible visit.
  • Respect Wildlife: Whether it's birds or marine creatures, maintaining a respectful distance ensures their natural behavior is not disrupted. Always follow the guidelines for wildlife interaction.
  • Be Mindful of Timing: The island can get crowded, especially on weekends and public holidays. If you prefer a quieter experience, you might want to consider visiting on a weekday.

How to Get There

Pigeon Island is most accessible from Trincomalee. Boats to the island can be hired from the Nilaveli Beach area, which is around 16 km away from Trincomalee. The boat ride usually takes about 15 to 20 minutes. Public transportation is available from Trincomalee to Nilaveli, and taxis are another convenient option.

Best Times to Visit

The ideal months to visit Pigeon Island are from April to September when the sea conditions are most favorable for snorkeling and diving activities. During this period, visibility underwater is also at its best.

Admission Fees

Entrance fees for the national park are variable depending on your nationality. The fees for foreign tourists are higher than for local visitors. It's a good idea to check the most current rates before planning your trip.

Nearby Attractions

  • Nilaveli Beach: Just a short distance from the Pigeon Island dock, Nilaveli Beach is a perfect spot for relaxation and water activities. With its golden sand and clear waters, it's a popular choice for sunbathing and swimming.
  • Trincomalee Harbor: One of the world's largest natural harbors, Trincomalee Harbor has historical significance and serves as a vibrant local fishing hub.
  • Fort Fredrick: Separate from the harbor, Fort Fredrick is a historic fortress with a rich colonial past. It provides elevated views of the surrounding area and a glimpse into Sri Lanka's history.
  • Kanniya Hot Springs: These natural hot wells are located around 10 kilometers from Trincomalee. The Hot Springs offer a unique experience that is a good change from the beach activities.

Pigeon Island offers a unique blend of marine exploration and natural beauty. With its diverse ecosystems and emphasis on conservation, it's an ideal destination for nature-loving travelers. Whether you're interested in snorkeling, bird watching, or simply soaking in the beauty of the natural landscape, make sure to drop by Pigeon Island as you explore Trincomalee.

Featured photo by Htrnr
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